Economic concerns, technological threat and uncertain futures have contributed to a crisis of confidence in print. Throw in rapidly changing market expectations and media choices, and you have an industry that’s been on the back foot for several years. But a reversal is underway. Print is reinventing itself to be more vibrant than ever, an energetic force in a multichannel communications world.
Years of turmoil have forced printers to refine their systems, minimise waste and maximise process automation and efficiency. Streamlined process management and consumption of a renewable resource make print a highly sustainable, as well as an effective, medium. Rising environmental awareness is encouraging environmentally smart media buyers to refocus on print.
The forces shaping today’s print industry and its sustainability are complex and often confusing. Factors include electronic media, technological innovation, crossmedia business models, environmental regulations, global economics and an increasingly mobile and interactive media audience. InMobi, developers of mobile advertising platforms, estimate that consumers spend an astonishing 37% of their media time with mobile. Global brands are exploiting this. Mark Fellows of global ad agency McCann has worked with Ikea to print special graphics rather than QR codes in Ikea catalogues, so that “extended content (is) triggered by page scans of special symbols”.
These smartphone scans link to Ikea's websites for additional home decor ideas and upselling.
New media options can be complex while digital technology implementations and green expectations can breed market uncertainty. For many printers investment decisions in such a climate can be risky so they are only cautiously exploring new ways of doing business, embracing digital tools to support changing customer needs. The more successful printers are reshaping their businesses to help clients leverage channels and align commercial and environmental goals on firm foundations,
Short term novelty responses to overhyped environmental awareness are not enough to make a difference. “Environmental solutions are essentially economic, so it’s a shared problem,” says Stephen Fitzgerald, co-founder of Affirmative Investment Management.
Affirmative Investment Management is the world’s first dedicated green bond management company, investing in the growing cohort of organisations focused on tackling climate change and reducing environmental impact. From the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and ISO to the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership in the US, plus scores of smaller local environmental projects, awareness across print is rising that environmental management is everyone’s responsibility and the planet’s necessity. The recent COP21 agreement in Paris reinforces this.
The printing industry can make a difference to the sustainability question. Print is sustainable not just because it uses a renewable resource, namely paper. The collapse of traditional print markets has forced the industry to adjust through automated and streamlined processes, cutting waste and excess emissions. In all sectors and geographies, survival has demanded lean and efficient production based on process standardisation. Industry standards such as the ISO 12647 deliver process control and results in less waste, improving sustainability as well as delivering financial impact.
But more is needed particularly where print is directly in a consumer’s hands, hence packaging and labels are perhaps our most common shared print experience. Brands need to be assured that their image is safeguarded. “Sustainability is a key part of our strategic criteria when selecting technology suppliers to build our business on, and working with partners such as Xeikon in particular has enabled us to invest in a platform confident that sustainability is key to both their philosophy and ours,” says Dr Adrian Steele, managing director of Mercian Labels.
The European Organisation for Packaging and the Environment says that “packaging needs to be able to fulfil its enabling role in a circular economy by optimising resource use, minimising waste and extending the value in a product and the economy.” Consequently printers are investing with sustainability in mind.
Print can convey a brand owners values, including their environmental and sustainability messages. At the same time speed is of the essence to retail brands. SmileyColor, a US packaging production consulting group, say that every day’s delay getting product to shelf costs a brand $100,000, so process efficiency and control are vital. The balance between the economics of achieving high turnover, and managed environmental impact and waste control is delicate.
Despite the scale and complexity of achieving this subtle balance, the packaging industry is responding. An ambitious example is the Carlsberg Circular Community (CCC). Among other activities, this collection of Carlsberg and global suppliers is developing packaging materials optimised for recycling and reuse. The Green Fibre Bottle, biodegradable and biobased, is under development and will consist primarily of sustainably sourced wood fibre.
“By using partnerships strategically, we can obtain much bigger scale and scope of our sustainability activities, and we are excited every time a potential partner approaches us about joining the community. Together we can make real lasting impact,” explains Simon Boas Hoffmeyer, sustainability director, Carlsberg Group.
The Green Fibre Bottle might also represent an opportunity for innovative packaging printers: “We do not currently have any print-related partners in the CCC, however, we are by no means rejecting the inclusion of such partners,” he adds.
Investment into sustainable alternatives is of growing concern for governments and investors, as well as media buyers. Affirmative Investment’s Stephen Fitzgeraldis a member of the board managing Australia’s sovereign wealth fund, set up to ensure full funding of Federal government pension liabilities. He says: “Governments need to believe that there are things we should be doing to protect the environment (because) it’s a shared problem, but it’s about taking responsibility and actually doing something that makes a difference.”
This is tricky but the lights are coming on. According to consultancy firm McKinsey sustainability is a permanent management fixture for 70% of CEOs. Freddie Woolfe, associate director corporate engagement for Hermes Investment Management, wants “companies to make strong commitments to tackle deforestation, eliminating unsustainable forestry practices from their supply chains.” Fitzgerald says: “Our mandate is return, but there is an ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) component to what we do.”
Control of emissions to air, water and land, and chemical regulations impact all industries including print. The US is tightening green laws in many states and at federal level is targeting energy generators. In China strict environmental legislation is under development, but inconsistency plagues global legislation. Fitzgerald explains: “The environment is not a driver in Australia, but in Germany and Scandinavia it is”. Markets are also inconsistent. Dr Adrian Steele says: “Sustainability is of varied interest to our client base: some regard it as an important part of their supplier selection and audit process, some just aren't interested.” He adds that “the market hasn’t driven us to adopt any particular environmental management system, and so we actively manage our awareness of legislation through online resources.”
To varying degrees in different geographies, regulations restrict the composition of substrates, inks and press consumables, and govern waste management. In the UK companies handling packaging weighing over 50 tonnes per year are required to recover and recycle packaging waste. There and elsewhere printers who use ink chemistries with high Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) must comply with rules designed to protect health and safety and avoid pollution. Ink manufacturers must comply with other chemical regulations, especially for inks used in packaging perishable goods. Low migration inks are critical, but recipes must not compromise the material on which they are printed or the package contents.
ISO 17098 Report on substances and materials which may impede recycling is one of many useful tools. Standards such as ISO 14001 (environmental management systems) and ISO 16759 (calculating the carbon footprint of print) help printers to support customers’ public environmental commitments, which can be ambitious. Kingfisher, a multi-retail sector conglomerate, wants “100% responsibly sourced timber and paper in all our operations by 2020”, according to Jamie Lawrence, senior sustainability advisor. Kingfisher wants compliance with environmental legislation such as the US Lacey Act, the European Union Timber Regulation and Restrictions on Hazardous Substances II, plus other rules as they emerge.
But nothing changes if customers aren’t on board with sustainability objectives. Brand owners can drive reduced dependence on primary materials, leading to innovation in label substrates and print processes. But the market and economics drive sustainability in print so the biggest challenge for print’s environmental impact is the relationship between commercial, practical and sustainability priorities. This dynamic influences all aspects of, and links within, print media supply chains, requiring motivation and resource.
How printers balance these interests is subjective. They must be able to produce products within a cohesive environmental framework and be profitable. Development of sustainability policies and production models is a massive challenge for print media supply chains. But it’s one all players in print media supply chains can embrace.